When the names of the Oscar winners are revealed this evening, months of suspense give way to tears, smiles and speeches. Yet when the curtain falls, one question remains: Who cast the votes?
About 37 million people tuned in to the Academy Awards last year, and a great deal rides on the show's outcome. Winning a golden statuette can vault an actor to stardom, add millions to a movie's box office and boost a studio's prestige. Yet the roster of all 5,765 voting members of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a closely guarded secret.
Even inside the movie industry, intense speculation surrounds the academy's composition and how that influences who gets nominated for and wins Oscars. The organization does not publish a membership list.
"I have to tell you," said academy member Viola Davis, nominated for lead actress this year for "The Help." "I don't even know who is a member of the academy."
A Los Angeles Times study found that academy voters are markedly less diverse than the public, and even more monolithic than many in the film industry may suspect. Oscar voters are nearly 94 percent Caucasian and 77 percent male, the Times found. Blacks are about 2 percent of the academy, and Latinos are less than 2 percent.
Oscar voters have a median age of 62, the study showed. People younger than 50 constitute just 14 percent of the membership.
The academy calls itself "the world's pre-eminent movie-related organization" of "the most accomplished men and women working in cinema," and its membership includes some of the brightest lights in the film business ---- Tom Hanks, Sidney Poitier, Meryl Streep and Steven Spielberg, among others. The roster also features actors far better known for their television acting, such as Erik Estrada from "CHiPs," Jaclyn Smith of "Charlie's Angels" and "The Love Boat's" Gavin MacLeod.
The academy is primarily a group of working professionals, and nearly 50 percent of the academy's actors have appeared on screen in the past two years. But membership is generally for life, and hundreds of academy voters haven't worked on a movie in decades.
Some are people who have left the movie business entirely but continue to vote on the Oscars ----- including a nun, a bookstore owner and a retired Peace Corps recruiter. Their votes count the same as ballots cast by the likes of Julia Roberts, George Clooney and Leonardo DiCaprio.
To conduct the study, Times reporters spoke with thousands of academy members and their representatives ---- and reviewed academy publications, resumes and biographies ---- to confirm the identities of 5,112 voters ---- more than 89 percent of the voting members. Those interviews revealed varying opinions about the academy's race, sex and age breakdown: Some members see it simply as a mirror of hiring patterns in Hollywood, while others say it reflects the group's mission to recognize achievement rather than promote diversity. Many said the academy should be much more representative.
The Times found that some of the academy's 15 branches are almost exclusively white and male. Caucasians make up 90 percent or more of every academy branch except actors, whose roster is 88 percent white. The academy's executive branch is 98 percent white, as is its writers branch.
Men compose more than 90 percent of five branches, including cinematography and visual effects. Of the academy's 43-member board of governors, six are women; public relations executive Cheryl Boone Isaacs is the sole person of color.
"You would think that in this day and age, there would be a little bit more equality across the board, but that's not the case," said Nancy Schreiber, one of a handful of women in the cinematography branch. "Being a cinematographer should not be gender-based, and it's ridiculous that it is."
Academy leaders including President Tom Sherak and Chief Executive Dawn Hudson said they have been trying to diversify the membership but that change is difficult because the film industry is not very diverse, and slow because the academy has limited membership growth since 2004.
"We absolutely recognize that we need to do a better job," said academy governor Phil Alden Robinson. But "we start off with one hand tied behind our back. ... If the industry as a whole is not doing a great job in opening up its ranks, it's very hard for us to diversify our membership."
Questions about the academy's diversity, or lack thereof, have persisted for years. In 1996, the Rev. Jesse Jackson organized nationwide protests over the absence of black and minority Oscar nominees, claiming it was evidence of "race exclusion" in Hollywood. The question arose again last year, when not a single minority was among the 45 nominees for actor, actress, supporting actor and actress, director and original and adapted screenplay.
In 83 years of Oscars, less than 4 percent of the acting awards have been won by blacks. Only one woman ---- Kathryn Bigelow ---- has received an Oscar for directing.
After the 2011 ceremony was staged without a single black male presenter, actor Samuel L. Jackson complained in an email to the Times: "It's obvious there's not ONE Black male actor in Hollywood that's able to read a teleprompter, or that's 'hip enuf,' for the new academy demographic!"
Asked about the diversity of Oscar presenters, Sherak said he did not instruct this year's show producers to include more minorities. "Producers produce the show, end of subject," he said. Past hosts have included African Americans Chris Rock and Whoopi Goldberg, and Eddie Murphy was initially slated to host this year's broadcast.
Age and gender have also prompted questions. Sony Pictures executives said last year that they believed their film "The Social Network" lost the best picture race to "The King's Speech" because older Oscar voters didn't relate to the Facebook story. This year, some believe the 9/11 drama "Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close" made the best picture list because it appealed to middle-aged men.
"The film is about men trying to be good fathers, sons trying to be good sons," said Terry Press, a public relations branch member who has helped mount many Oscar campaigns. "It's about unfulfilled conversations with your father and that's an extremely middle-aged-man thing. It's like 'Field of Dreams.'"
The academy was founded in 1927 with two aims: to mediate labor disputes and improve the movie industry's image. Louis B. Mayer, the legendary head of MGM, initiated the idea and invited an elite cadre of professionals, including actress and United Artists studio co-founder Mary Pickford, director Cecil B. DeMille and producer Irving Thalberg, to join.
The academy's membership grew steadily over the years as the organization moved away from labor management issues to focus on film preservation, research and the Oscars, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
Today, the academy oversees more than $196 million in assets and dispenses more than $20 million in grants and scholarships a year, including to Streetlights, a job training and placement group that works to promote diversity in Hollywood. It donates $750,000 annually to film festivals and sponsors an annual screenwriting competition that rewards winners with $35,000 fellowships. According to its tax filing for the 2009-2010 fiscal year, the Oscars generated $81.3 million in revenue for the group.
The academy grew rapidly between 1990 and 2000, adding close to 800 members. Then-executive director Bruce Davis alerted the board to the steep increase and noted there had not been a commensurate growth in the film business. The organization attributed the membership surge to a relaxed attitude toward admission.
"The guilds are a democracy. If you have credits, nobody asks how good you were," said Davis, executive director from 1989 to 2011. "But the academy has to be different."
In response, the organization in 2004 began limiting membership growth to 30 per year, not including those admitted to fill vacancies created by deaths, resignations or retirement. It also clarified and stiffened its policies for admittance. The available slots are allocated among the 15 branches and the academy's at-large division.
There are three ways to become a candidate for membership: land an Oscar nomination; apply and be recommended by two members of a branch; or earn an endorsement from the branch's membership committee or the academy staff.
The membership committees then vote on the candidates; those who get a majority are asked to join. Almost everyone accepts.
Actors now must have three significant credits to be considered for membership, and producers need two solo producing credits or the equivalent. Such criteria benefit people with more experience. "The academy is always going to be slightly older ---- if just because you have to have about five years of credits before you're even considered," said Joe Letteri, a four-time Oscar winner for visual effects.
In practice, the bar for admittance varies widely from branch to branch. Last year, actress Rooney Mara and visual effects supervisor Tim Burke were among 178 invitees. Mara had had a small role in "The Social Network" and a bigger part in "A Nightmare on Elm Street" (she had yet to star in "The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo," for which she got an Oscar nomination). Burke, in contrast, had won an Academy Award a decade earlier for his work on "Gladiator."
The academy in 2004 began publicizing its invitees' names.
The more than 1,000 people invited to join since 2004 include black actors such as Jennifer Hudson, Mo'Nique and Jeffrey Wright. But overall, the group was only slightly more diverse than the academy it was joining ----- 89 percent white and 73 percent male. Sherak pointed out that in 2011, the invitees were 30 percent female and 10 percent nonwhite.
The academy's overall composition before and after the 2004 policy shift remained close to 93 percent Caucasian and 76 percent male, and its median age dropped from 64 to 62.
As part of the rule changes, Davis urged that a wider circle of potential invitees be considered. In 2009, he suggested to the sound branch committee that it had overlooked India's Resul Pookutty, who won an Oscar that year for sound mixing on "Slumdog Millionaire." Davis admired his work and was moved by his emotional acceptance speech on Oscar night. (He was invited a year later.)
"When I got the letter from them saying they would like to invite me into the academy, I was literally screaming in the studio," said Pookutty, who flew from Mumbai to Los Angeles to attend the new-member lunch. "It means a great deal. More than the pride of it, I feel that my whole fraternity in India has been recognized and honored."
Sherak and other academy officials said they're eager for more applications from women and minorities, and more involvement from those who are already members.
"I'm hoping your story runs and 7,000 phone calls break the lines here," Sherak said. "We've been trying to reach out to the constituency and we're looking for help. You want to be on a committee? Tell us what committee. If you are sitting waiting for us to find your name in our make-believe book and we are going to call you, we are not going to do that. Come to us, we'll get you in. We want you in. That would help us a lot."